# What Was Stephen Hawking’s Black Hole Theorem

## Which black hole theorem did Stephen Hawking propose?

According to a fundamental rule for black holes, the total area of their event horizons, which define the line beyond which nothing can ever escape, should never decrease. Named after physicist Stephen Hawking, who developed the theorem in 1971, this law is known as Hawking’s area theorem. Black holes are colder the larger they are. Stellar black holes are extremely cold, with a temperature of about 273. Celsius, or nearly absolute zero, or zero Kelvin.Entropy cannot decrease in a black hole system, according to the second law once more. This has the effect of forcing the surface area of the merged event horizon to be larger than the surface areas of the merging black holes when two of them merge.The surface gravity on a still Killing horizon is said to be constant according to the zeroth law of black hole mechanics. The black hole’s horizon’s Hawking temperature increases in direct proportion to its surface gravity.The area of a black hole’s event horizon, which is the line beyond which nothing can ever escape, is predicted to never decrease by a fundamental law of black holes.A solar mass is typically used to express the mass of a black hole. Our Sun weighs one solar mass, according to definition. This amount, or 2 x 1030 kilograms, is very large. If written out, that is 2 with 30 zeros after it: 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

## What is black hole entropy’s mathematical formula?

The Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy, which is proportional to the event horizon area and has the formula SBH = Ah/(4G), is a significant black hole observable. The usual Stefan-Boltzmann blackbody formula L=AT4 L = A T 4 yields the black hole’s Hawking luminosity L, where A=4r2s A = 4 r s 2 is its surface area, and =2k4/(60c23) is its Stefan-Boltzmann constant.

## What is a black hole’s mathematical formula?

In the formula R S (M) = 2 G M c 2, G denotes the gravitational constant, and c denotes the speed of light. The main idea is that if you place a mass M or more in a sphere with a radius RS(M) smaller than M, then voila—it turns into a black hole. It’s okay if you don’t understand the specifics of the equation. Black Hole Theory Stephen Hawking In popular culture, the Black Hole Theory is almost a noun. In some areas of the space-time universe, known as black holes, the gravity is so intense that even light cannot escape or pass through.Hawking was the first to present a cosmology theory that combined the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics to explain how the universe works. The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics has his ardent support.Brief Answers To The Big Questions, a book that was finished by Stephen Hawking’s family after his death, contains his final words. It includes responses to the queries that Hawking heard the most about during his time on Earth. There is no God, he concluded in the book. Nobody controls the cosmos.A black hole is a gravitational field so intense that nothing can escape from it, not even light. Astronomers have long believed that black holes only come in two varieties: stellar and supermassive. The kind, or more specifically, the mass, of the black hole determines the type.

## Whose formula was employed to locate the black hole?

In 1916, following the publication of Einstein’s theory of gravity, the concept of black holes was rediscovered. Karl Schwarzschild next solved Einstein’s equations for the case of a black hole, which he described as a spherical volume of warped space enclosing a concentrated mass and completely imperceptible to the outside world. Black holes are regions of space with extremely strong gravitational fields that prevent even the quickest-moving particles from escaping. Black holes are so dense that not even light can escape.In fact, the theory that explains black holes was so unorthodox that Einstein himself had serious reservations about it. In a 1939 paper published in the Annals of Mathematics, he came to the conclusion that the concept was not convincing and the phenomenon was unreal.With the general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein made the first prediction about black holes in 1916. Many years later, in 1967, American astronomer John Wheeler first used the term black hole.There are two components to a black hole. The event horizon, which you can imagine as the surface, is actually just the spot where gravity becomes too strong for anything to escape. The singularity is then located in the center. We use that term to describe a point that is infinitely small and dense.A black hole is a region in space with such intense gravity that nothing — not even light — can escape from it. John Michell, an English country parson, first proposed this astounding notion in 1783.Black holes are colder the larger they are. Almost absolute zero, or zero Kelvin, or 273. Celsius, is the temperature of stellar black holes, which makes them very cold. In the centers of galaxies, supermassive black holes can be found that are between a million and a billion times more massive than the Sun. Such a black hole is present in the majority of galaxies, if not all of them. The number of supermassive black holes in our area of the universe is therefore estimated to be around 100 billion.Black holes have also been found in some galaxies’ centers. These enormous black holes hold as much matter as 100 million or more suns. These black holes have a diameter of millions of miles.Around 100 billion stars make up the Milky Way galaxy. A star that forms has a mass large enough to become a black hole about once every thousand stars. In light of this, our galaxy must contain 100 million stellar-mass black holes. Only about a dozen of these have been identified, and the majority are invisible to us.Sagittarius A is the name of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Its mass is comparable to approximately 4 million suns, and it could fit inside a very large ball that could accommodate a few million Earths.Stellar-mass black holes, intermediate-mass black holes, supermassive black holes, and possibly primordial black holes are the options.

## Is it logically impossible to have a black hole?

However, a fundamental principle of quantum theory states that no information from the universe can ever vanish. While Einstein’s theory of gravity predicts the formation of black holes. The information loss paradox is a result of attempts to combine these two theories and is characterized by mathematical absurdity. It has long been assumed that black holes cannot be destroyed because nothing can escape their gravitational pull. But as we now understand, black holes actually dissipate, gradually releasing their energy back into the universe.Astronauts, rockets, or light can all escape the black hole if they are outside of its surface. The strong gravitational pull toward the black hole’s center prevents anything from escaping after it crosses this surface, regardless of its speed.They remain black for all time in pure general relativity, without any modifications or taking into account any other physics. Once one forms, it will remain a black hole forever.Black holes are subject to the laws of physics, including those governing gravity. In actuality, gravity has a direct impact on their extraordinary properties.Nothing, not even light or other electromagnetic waves, can escape the event horizon of a black hole because of the region’s intense gravitational field. According to general relativity theory, a compact enough mass can bend spacetime into a black hole.